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Safe storage and handling of vaccines

19 February 2014

Nursing Standard


Safe vaccine storage and handling is essential to ensure that the ‘cold chain’ that refrigerates the vaccine at a temperature between +2°C and +8°C is maintained...

Pandemic influenza: the primary care challenge

02 November 2009

Primary Health Care


The UK is on the precipice of the second wave of a global influenza pandemic that will have a massive impact on all primary healthcare services. Primary prevention...

Why immunisation training matters

17 July 2018

Primary Health Care


Vaccines are highly effective at reducing infectious disease and are recognised by the World Health Organization as second only to clean water at effectively...

The medicines refrigerator and the importance of the cold chain in the safe storage of medicines

04 October 2017

Nursing Standard


The medicines refrigerator is a common piece of equipment found in clinical areas. It is used to ensure specific medicines are safely stored within a narrow...

Mosquito-borne infections and UK travellers

28 June 2016

Primary Health Care


Mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting a significant number of infections around the globe. Vaccines or chemoprophylaxis can protect against very few of theses...

Attitudes and beliefs of healthcare workers about influenza vaccination

06 March 2019

Nursing Older People


Background Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all healthcare workers (HCWs) to help reduce the risk of contracting the virus and transmitting it to...

Understanding the health risks of varicella zoster virus in pregnancy

15 March 2019

Primary Health Care


Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a common illness that causes varicella (chickenpox) and shingles. It is prevalent mostly during childhood but there are additional...

Factors contributing to parental ‘vaccine hesitancy’ for childhood immunisations

01 June 2020

Nursing Children and Young People

literature review

Childhood immunisations have contributed to saving millions of lives worldwide. However, a growing number of parents are declining immunisations, while other parents...

Managing childhood vaccination clinics during COVID-19: risks and solutions

30 September 2020

Primary Health Care


The COVID-19 pandemic and the systems and processes put in place to minimise the spread of infection have left many services, including vaccination clinics,...

Biological basis of child health 14: understanding the immune system, vaccines, allergy and disease

04 October 2021

Nursing Children and Young People


This article, the 14th in a series on the biological basis of child health, focuses on the immune system. It provides an overview of pathogens to which the human...