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A practical guide to external cardiac pacing

23 January 2008

Nursing Standard

Art & Science

External (transcutaneous) pacing is a temporary means of pacing a patient’s heart during an emergency. Pulses of electrical current are delivered through the...

Assessment and treatment of patients with acute unstable bradycardia

30 January 2013

Nursing Standard

Learning Zone

Bradycardia is a slow heart rate that can lead to cardiac arrest or occur after initial resuscitation following cardiac arrest. This article provides information on...

Implementing vernakalant: a novel approach to cardioversion

11 December 2018

Emergency Nurse

antiarrhythmic agents

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia, and there is a one in four lifetime risk of developing the condition for people who are over the age of 40....

How to record a 12-lead electrocardiogram

20 April 2018

Nursing Standard

Rationale and key points Rationale and key points This article provides a step-wise, practical approach to recording a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and explores...

Early detection of inherited cardiac conditions in primary care

11 July 2018

Primary Health Care


Inherited cardiac conditions are a leading cause of sudden death in those under 40. A thorough family history taken in the primary care setting will enable early...

Care of infants, children and adults with congenital heart disease

01 July 2019

Nursing Standard


Congenital heart disease refers to an anatomical or physiological defect of the heart that is present at birth. Over the past three decades there have been...

Atrial fibrillation: symptoms, risk factors, assessment and management

16 January 2023

Nursing Standard


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence increases significantly with age. It is linked to serious adverse outcomes,...

Diagnosis and management of patients with atrial fibrillation

26 April 2018

Nursing Standard

Atrial fibrillation is a common cardiac arrhythmia and is the most frequent arrhythmia experienced by older people. It is caused by chaotic electrical activity in...

Cardiac pacing: principles, interventions and patient support

31 January 2022

Nursing Standard


Cardiac pacing is used to treat a variety of heart rhythm irregularities or arrhythmias, most commonly bradyarrhythmia, which is characterised by an abnormally slow...