Advanced breast cancer: aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment
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Advanced breast cancer: aetiology, pathogenesis and treatment

Maggi Banning Senior lecturer, Advanced clinical practice, Brunel University, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Middlesex

Even though the number of women affected by breast cancer continues to rise worldwide, aetiology remains unclear. As health educators nurses should encourage women, particularly those over 50, to undertake preventative measures such as breast self-examination and mammography, which are recognised means of identifying breast lumps. Breast tumours can be identified genetically and the HER2+ gene appears to cause the most prolific changes to breast tissue. When the use of trastuzumab is clearly indicated, its use in some cases has been rationed due to cost. Nurses have a key role to play in providing emotional support to women and advice on staying healthy.

Cancer Nursing Practice. 6, 3, 35-39. doi: 10.7748/cnp2007.

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