Heart failure: pathophysiology, treatment and nursing care
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Heart failure: pathophysiology, treatment and nursing care

Marina Nicholas Practice educator, Cardiothoracic medicine, Medical Care Unit, Harefield Hospital, Middlesex

Increasing numbers of patients are being diagnosed with heart failure because of the ageing population and improved survival rates following myocardial infarction. Marina Nicholas examines the causes, signs and symptoms, and treatment of this condition.

Nursing Standard. 19, 11, 46-51. doi: 10.7748/ns2004.11.19.11.46.c3766

Correspondence

m.nicholas@rbh.nthames.nhs.uk

Peer review

This article has been subject to double blind peer review