An overview of female voiding dysfunction
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An overview of female voiding dysfunction

Wendy Naish Nurse consultant, Urology/continence, Epsom and St Helier NHS Trust, Surrey

Female voiding dysfunction is a complex condition and has a number of possible causes. It lacks definition and is poorly understood. This article outlines what is considered normal voiding function and the factors that have been identified to cause voiding dysfunction in females. Assessment through careful questioning, use of an assessment tool and examination are essential to help form a diagnosis. Investigations may be simple and non-invasive or complex depending on the outcome of the assessment. Management options are dependent on the factor causing the problem; it is important to remember that lower urinary tract function can affect renal function and this must be preserved when considering management or treatment options.

Nursing Standard. 22, 30, 49-57. doi: 10.7748/ns2008.


Peer review

This article has been subject to double blind peer review