Chronic heart failure: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment
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Chronic heart failure: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment

Christopher Nicholson Lead clinician, Cardiac and Respiratory Service, Minerva Centre, Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust, Preston

Heart failure has significant prevalence in older people: the mean average age of patients with the condition is 77. It has serious prognostic and quality of life implications for patients, as well as health service costs. Diagnosis requires confirmatory investigations and consideration of causative processes. First-line treatment involves education, lifestyle modification, symptom-controlling and disease-modifying medication. Further treatment may include additional medications, cardiac devices and surgery. End of life planning is part of the care pathway.

Nursing Older People. 26, 7, 29-38. doi: 10.7748/nop.26.7.29.e584


Peer review

This article has been subject to double blind peer review

Conflict of interest

None declared

Received: 18 March 2014

Accepted: 23 May 2014

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