Chronic heart failure part 1: pathophysiology, signs and symptoms
Rebecca Brake Advanced nurse practitioner in cardiology, Mid Cheshire NHS Foundation Trust, Cheshire, England
Ian David Jones Professor of cardiovascular nursing, School of Nursing and Allied Health, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, England
Chronic heart failure is a common and complex clinical syndrome that results from impaired cardiac relaxation or contraction. Patients with chronic heart failure may experience multiple debilitating symptoms, such as fatigue, pain, and peripheral oedema. However, breathlessness may be considered the most debilitating symptom. This is the first of two articles on chronic heart failure, and outlines the pathophysiology of the condition, its causes, assessment, and signs and symptoms. Part 2 will discuss the treatment and management of the condition, including pharmacological strategies, device implantation, lifestyle modification, cardiac rehabilitation and palliative care.
Nursing Standard. 31, 19, 54-63. doi: 10.7748/ns.2017.e10349Correspondence
This article has been subject to external double-blind peer review and checked for plagiarism using automated softwareConflict of interest
Received: 19 November 2015
Accepted: 20 May 2016